huguenot surnames in germany

Some Huguenots fought in the Low Countries alongside the Dutch against Spain during the first years of the Dutch Revolt (15681609). In relative terms, this could be the largest wave of immigration of a single community into Britain ever. By 17 September, almost 25,000 Protestants had been massacred in Paris alone. The country had a long history of struggles with the papacy (see the Avignon Papacy, for example) by the time the Protestant Reformation finally arrived. The Huguenots. Most Cordes families in the United States come from Germany but many of them have family histories that claim French or Spanish origins. Those Huguenots who stayed in France were subsequently forcibly converted to Roman Catholicism and were called "new converts". du Pont, a former student of Lavoisier, established the Eleutherian gunpowder mills. [72][73] The wine industry in South Africa owes a significant debt to the Huguenots, some of whom had vineyards in France, or were brandy distillers, and used their skills in their new home. Consequently, many Huguenots considered the wealthy and Calvinist-controlled Dutch Republic, which also happened to lead the opposition to Louis XIV, as the most attractive country for exile after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes. Some members of this community emigrated to the United States in the 1890s. The collection includes family histories, a library, and a picture archive. 13 (Regiment on foot Varenne) and 15 (Regiment on foot Wylich). Some Huguenot immigrants settled in central and eastern Pennsylvania. ), was in common use by the mid-16th century. ", Lien Bich Luu, "French-speaking refugees and the foundation of the London silk industry in the 16th century. [22] A few families went to Orthodox Russia and Catholic Quebec. Their names were Bevier, Hasbrouck, DuBois, Deyo, LeFever, and others. Amongst them were 200 pastors. Previous to the erection of it, the strong men would often walk twenty-three miles on Saturday evening, the distance by the road from New Rochelle to New York, to attend the Sunday service. The Pennsylvania-German, Volume 5 Full view - 1904. The battle between Huguenots and Catholics in France also . Dictionary of American Family . We visited Karlshafen in 1996 and again in 2008. The Dutch as part of New Amsterdam later claimed this land, along with New York and the rest of New Jersey. A royal citadel was built and the university and consulate were taken over by the Catholic party. They are Franschhoek in the Cape Province of South Africa, Portarlington in the Republic of Ireland, and Bad Karlshafen in Hesse, Germany. Long integrated into Australian society, it is encouraged by the Huguenot Society of Australia to embrace and conserve its cultural heritage, aided by the Society's genealogical research services.[67]. . [45] The Michelade by Huguenotes against Catholics was later on 29 September 1567. In the Dutch-speaking North of France, Bible students who gathered in each other's houses to study secretly were called Huis Genooten ("housemates") while on the Swiss and German borders they were termed Eid Genossen, or "oath fellows", that is, persons bound to each other by an oath. He called this tip of the peninsula which jutted out into Newark Bay, "Bird's Point". [100] In Wandsworth, their gardening skills benefited the Battersea market gardens. The cities of Bourges, Montauban and Orlans saw substantial activity in this regard. 4,000 emigrated to the Thirteen Colonies, where they settled, especially in New York, the Delaware River Valley in Eastern Pennsylvania, New Jersey,[22] and Virginia. As Huguenots gained influence and more openly displayed their faith, Catholic hostility grew. Although services are conducted largely in English, every year the church holds an Annual French Service, which is conducted entirely in French using an adaptation of the Liturgies of Neufchatel (1737) and Vallangin (1772). It includes links to books and societies that can help you find your ancestral name in France prior to the French Revolution, and it focuses on Protestant aristocratic families. Soon, they became enraged with the Dutch trading tactics, and drove out the settlers. Research genealogy for Alma Levi Russell Russell, as well as other members of the Russell family, on Ancestry. [35] The height of this persecution was the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre in August, 1572, when 5,000 to 30,000 were killed, although there were also underlying political reasons for this as well, as some of the Huguenots were nobles trying to establish separate centres of power in southern France. At Middletown, twenty-seven miles from Lancaster . Some Huguenot descendants in the Netherlands may be noted by French family names, although they typically use Dutch given names. Synodicon in Gallia Reformata: or, the Acts, Decisions, Decrees, and Canons of those Famous National Councils of the Reformed Churches in France, This action would have fostered relations with the Swiss. [56], Montpellier was among the most important of the 66 villes de sret ('cities of protection' or 'protected cities') that the Edict of 1598 granted to the Huguenots. This was about 21% of all the recorded Hubert's in USA. In France, Calvinists in the United Protestant Church of France and also some in the Protestant Reformed Church of Alsace and Lorraine consider themselves Huguenots. The Prinsenhof is one of the 14 active Walloon churches of the Dutch Reformed Church (now of the Protestant Church in the Netherlands). Around 1700, it is estimated that nearly 25% of the Amsterdam population was Huguenot. Raymond P. Hylton, "The Huguenot Settlement at Portarlington, C. E. J. Caldicott, Hugh Gough, Jean-Paul Pittion (1987), Last edited on 28 February 2023, at 16:02, Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, gathered in each other's houses to study secretly, Protestant Reformed Church of Alsace and Lorraine, Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen of 1789, Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg, Church of St. Peter and St. Paul, Angermnde, George William, Duke of Brunswick-Lneburg, George Lunt, "Huguenot The origin and meaning of the name", "The National Huguenot Society - Who Were the Huguenots? In 1685, Rev. Around 1294, a French version of the Scriptures was prepared by the Roman Catholic priest, Guyard des Moulins. [54] An amnesty granted in 1573 pardoned the perpetrators. The Berlin Huguenots preserved the French language in their church services for nearly a century. The fort was destroyed in 1560 by the Portuguese, who captured some of the Huguenots. On that day, soldiers and organized mobs fell upon the Huguenots, and thousands of them were slaughtered. Most came from northern France (Brittany, Normandy, and Picardy, as well as West Flanders (subsequently French Flanders), which had been annexed from the Southern Netherlands by Louis XIV in 1668-78[83]). After revoking the Edict of Nantes, which granted Huguenots civil rights, in October 1685, Louis XIV forbade them to leave France on pain of imprisonment, torture and death. Now, it happens that those whom they called Lutherans were at that time so narrowly watched during the day that they were forced to wait till night to assemble, for the purpose of praying God, for preaching and receiving the Holy Sacrament; so that although they did not frighten nor hurt anybody, the priests, through mockery, made them the successors of those spirits which roam the night; and thus that name being quite common in the mouth of the populace, to designate the evangelical huguenands in the country of Tourraine and Amboyse, it became in vogue after that enterprise. Huguenot Church The origin of the name Huguenot is unknown but believed to have been derived from combining phrases in German and Flemish that described their practice of home worship. The couple left for Batavia ten years later. "The Secret War of Elizabeth I: England and the Huguenots during the early Wars of Religion, 1562-77. The ties between Huguenots and the Dutch Republic's military and political leadership, the House of Orange-Nassau, which existed since the early days of the Dutch Revolt, helped support the many early settlements of Huguenots in the Dutch Republic's colonies. Kathy is a member of the Huguenot Society. [103][104] The only reference to immigrant lacemakers in this period is of twenty-five widows who settled in Dover,[101] and there is no contemporary documentation to support there being Huguenot lacemakers in Bedfordshire. [63] It states in article 3: "This application does not, however, affect the validity of past acts by the person or rights acquired by third parties on the basis of previous laws. By the time of his death in 1774, Calvinism had been nearly eliminated from France. "Huguenot Immigrants and the Formation of National Identities, 15481787". By 1692, a total of 201 French Huguenots had settled at the Cape of Good Hope. Examples of Huguenot surnames are: Agombar, Beauchamp, Bosanquet, Boucher/Bouchar, Bruneau, Chapeau, Deschamps, Dupont, Du Preez/Pree, Lamerie, Lepage, Martin, Rondeaux, Vernier and Vincent. ", Mark Greengrass, "Protestant exiles and their assimilation in early modern England. What is clear is that the surname, Jaques, is a Huguenot name. D.J.B. ", Kurt Gingrich, "'That Will Make Carolina Powerful and Flourishing': Scots and Huguenots in Carolina in the 1680s. The French Wars of Religion precluded a return voyage, and the outpost was abandoned. If you would like any more information, please email or call on 01634 789 347. Thera Wijsenbeek, "Identity Lost: Huguenot refugees in the Dutch Republic and its former colonies in North America and South Africa, 1650 to 1750: a comparison". The Huguenots adapted quickly and often married outside their immediate French communities. This Table contains the names of Huguenot families Naturalized [69] in Great Britain and Ireland; commencing A.D., 1681, in the reign of King Charles II., and ending in 1712, in the reign of Queen Anne. He started teaching in Rotterdam, where he finished writing and publishing his multi-volume masterpiece, Historical and Critical Dictionary. For example, E.I. Some Huguenots settled in Bedfordshire, one of the main centres of the British lace industry at the time. Although relatively large portions of the peasant population became Reformed there, the people, altogether, still remained majority Catholic.[16][19]. [citation needed] Mary returned to Scotland a widow, in the summer of 1561. The exodus of Huguenots from France created a brain drain, as many of them had occupied important places in society. The most detailed account that Historic Huguenot Street has of an enslaved person's life in the area comes from the early 19th century, from the famed abolitionist Sojourner Truth, who was born into slavery in Ulster County. [9] Reguier de la Plancha (d. 1560) in his De l'Estat de France offered the following account as to the origin of the name, as cited by The Cape Monthly: Reguier de la Plancha accounts for it [the name] as follows: "The name huguenand was given to those of the religion during the affair of Amboyse, and they were to retain it ever since. ser., 64 (April 2007): 377394. Individual Huguenots settled at the Cape of Good Hope from as early as 1671; the first documented was the wagonmaker Franois Vilion (Viljoen). [citation needed], By 1620, the Huguenots were on the defensive, and the government increasingly applied pressure. In the early 18th century, a regional group known as the Camisards (who were Huguenots of the mountainous Massif Central region) rioted against the Catholic Church, burning churches and killing the clergy. Persecution of Protestants officially ended with the Edict of Versailles, signed by Louis XVI in 1787. Gaspard de Coligny was among the first to fall at the hands of a servant of the Duke de . Nearly 50,000 Huguenots established themselves in Germany, 20,000 of whom were welcomed in Brandenburg-Prussia, where Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg and Duke of Prussia (r.16491688), granted them special privileges (Edict of Potsdam of 1685) and churches in which to worship (such as the Church of St. Peter and St. Paul, Angermnde and the French Cathedral, Berlin). [French, from Old French huguenot, member of a Swiss political movement, alteration (influenced by Bezanson Hugues (c. Other founding families created enterprises based on textiles and such traditional Huguenot occupations in France. In 1646, the land was granted to Jacob Jacobson Roy, a gunner at the fort in New Amsterdam (now Manhattan), and named "Konstapel's Hoeck" (Gunner's Point in Dutch). [28] They were suppressed by Francis I in 1545 in the Massacre of Mrindol. Reply. It was named New Rochelle after La Rochelle, their former strong-hold in France. The Prime Minister of South Africa from 1958-1966 was born in the Netherlands. It is the last name of former New York Yankees baseball player, Derek Jeter. 24 July, A.D. 1550. In the early years, many Huguenots also settled in the area of present-day Charleston, South Carolina. Other descendents of Huguenots included Jack Jouett, who made the ride from Cuckoo Tavern to warn Thomas Jefferson and others that Tarleton and his men were on their way to arrest him for crimes against the king; Reverend John Gano, a Revolutionary War chaplain and spiritual advisor to George Washington; Francis Marion; and a number of other leaders of the American Revolution and later statesmen. War at home again precluded a resupply mission, and the colony struggled. L'Eglise du Saint-Esprit in New York, founded in 1628, is older, but it left the French Reformed movement in 1804 to become part of the Episcopal Church. After the British Conquest of New France, British authorities in Lower Canada tried to encourage Huguenot immigration in an attempt to promote a Francophone Protestant Church in the region, hoping that French-speaking Protestants would be more loyal clergy than those of Roman Catholicism. Joan Crawford (1905-1977), American actress, descended from the Huguenots, Dr Pierre Chastain and Chretien DuBois, on her father's side. Several French Protestant churches are descended from or tied to the Huguenots, including: Criticism and conflict with the Catholic Church, Right of return to France in the 19th and 20th centuries, The Huguenot Population of France, 1600-1685: The Demographic Fate and Customs of a Religious Minority by Philip Benedict; American Philosophical Society, 1991 - 164, The Huguenots: Or, Reformed French Church. These surnames are most common in South Africa due to the immigration of the French Huguenots to the Cape of Good Hope in the 17th century. The community they created there is still known as Fleur de Lys (the symbol of France), an unusual French village name in the heart of the valleys of Wales. oo-geh-noh) or Protestants. 3rd. A large monument to commemorate the arrival of the Huguenots in South Africa was inaugurated on 7 April 1948 at Franschhoek. Apart from the French village name and that of the local rugby team, Fleur De Lys RFC, little remains of the French heritage. By the time Louis XIV revoked the Edict of Nantes in 1685, Huguenots accounted for 800,000 to 1million people. John Calvin was a Frenchman and himself largely responsible for the introduction and spread of the Reformed tradition in France. Joyce D. Goodfriend, "The social dimensions of congregational life in colonial New York city". . They retained the religious provisions of the Edict of Nantes until the rule of Louis XIV, who gradually increased persecution of Protestantism until he issued the Edict of Fontainebleau (1685). He exaggerated the decline, but the dragonnades were devastating for the French Protestant community. Lachenicht, Susanne. Fanatically opposed to the Catholic Church, the Huguenots killed priests, monks, and nuns, attacked monasticism, and destroyed sacred images, relics, and church buildings. Several congregations were founded throughout Germany and Scandinavia, such as those of Fredericia (Denmark), Berlin, Stockholm, Hamburg, Frankfurt, Helsinki, and Emden. Stadtholder William III of Orange, who later became King of England, emerged as the strongest opponent of king Louis XIV after the French attacked the Dutch Republic in 1672. O. I. History: As a name of Swiss German origin (see 1 above) the surname Martin is very common among the American Mennonites. Protestant preachers rallied a considerable army and a formidable cavalry, which came under the leadership of Admiral Gaspard de Coligny. The ancestral listing on our website is an "open listing" which means it is periodically updated from time to time as new information becomes available. French became the language of the educated elite and of the court at Potsdam on the outskirts of Berlin. [71] But with assimilation, within three generations the Huguenots had generally adopted Dutch as their first and home language. [11][12] By 1911, there was still no consensus in the United States on this interpretation. [13], The Huguenot cross is the distinctive emblem of the Huguenots (croix huguenote). [citation needed], In the early 21st century, there were approximately one million Protestants in France, representing some 2% of its population. Of the refugees who arrived on the Kent coast, many gravitated towards Canterbury, then the county's Calvinist hub. The Huguenots were French Calvinists, active mostly in the sixteenth century. They arrange tours, talks, events and schools programmes to raise the Huguenot profile in Spitalfields and raise funds for a permanent memorial to the Huguenots. The Portuguese threatened their Protestant prisoners with death if they did not convert to Roman Catholicism. Bernard James Whalen was born on 25 April 1931, in Shullsburg, Lafayette, Wisconsin, United States. It moved to Rochester in 1959, and now provides sheltered homes for fifty-five residents. This week's compilation, " France Huguenot Family Lineage Searches ," is designed to help you find your Protestant ancestors in 16 th to 18 th century France. The superstition of our ancestors, to within twenty or thirty years thereabouts, was such that in almost all the towns in the kingdom they had a notion that certain spirits underwent their Purgatory in this world after death, and that they went about the town at night, striking and outraging many people whom they found in the streets. Are you a descendant of a Huguenot Family? During this time, their opponents first dubbed the Protestants Huguenots; but they called themselves reforms, or "Reformed". This parish continues today as L'Eglise du Saint-Esprit, now a part of the Episcopal Church (Anglican) communion, and welcomes Francophone New Yorkers from all over the world. Isaac and Esther's first three children were born in Mannheim between the years 1668 and 1673. The WikiTree Huguenot Migration Project defines "Huguenot" to include any French-speaking Protestants (whatever branch or denomination) that left (emigrated from) their homeland (France or borderlands such as Provence, Navarre or the Spanish-Netherlands - today's Belgium) due to religious persecution or intolerance. Page 166. In Geneva, Hugues, though Catholic, was a leader of the "Confederate Party", so called because it favoured independence from the Duke of Savoy. The English authorities welcomed the French refugees, providing money from both government and private agencies to aid their relocation. Huguenot descendants sometimes display this symbol as a sign of reconnaissance (recognition) between them. By then, most Protestants were Cvennes peasants. A peace treaty was arranged in 1658, and the Dutch returned", "444 Years: The Massacre of the Huguenot Christians in America", "Huguenots of Spitalfields heritage tours & events in Spitalfields Huguenot Public Art Trust", "Eglise Protestante Franaise de Londres", "The Huguenot Chapel (Black Prince's Chantry)", "The Strangers who enriched Norwich and Norfolk life", "The strangers and the canaries - Football Welcomes 2018", "Paths to Pluralism: South Africa's Early History", Huguenot Society of Great Britain & Ireland, Mitterrand's Apology to the Huguenots (in French). The British government ignored the complaints made by local craftsmen about the favouritism shown to foreigners. ", Heinz Schilling,"Innovation through migration: the settlements of Calvinistic Netherlanders in sixteenth-and seventeenth-century Central and Western Europe. Huguenots lived on the Atlantic coast in La Rochelle, and also spread across provinces of Normandy and Poitou. Another Huguenot cemetery is located off French Church Street in Cork. But the light of the Gospel has made them vanish, and teaches us that these spirits were street-strollers and ruffians. [citation needed] The greatest concentrations of Huguenots at this time resided in the regions of Guienne, Saintonge-Aunis-Angoumois and Poitou.

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